Wolgograd (russisch Волгоград Audio-Datei / Hörbeispiel), bis Zarizyn (russisch Царицын Audio-Datei / Hörbeispiel), von 19Stalingrad. Die Schlacht von Stalingrad ist eine der bekanntesten Schlachten des Zweiten Weltkriegs. Die Vernichtung der deutschen 6. Armee und verbündeter Truppen. Der deutsche Angriff auf Stalingrad bildete den Auftakt der Schlacht von Stalingrad während des Deutsch-Sowjetischen Kriegs, bei dem die 6. Armee der.
Schlacht von StalingradDer Stalingradschild war eine während der Schlacht um Stalingrad geplante, aber nicht verwirklichte deutsche Kampfauszeichnung der deutschen Wehrmacht. Ambox trangdenonline.com Dies ist eine Themenkategorie für Artikel, die folgendes Kriterium erfüllen: „gehört zu Schlacht von Stalingrad“. Diese Kategorie kann nur in. Stalingrad ist ein deutscher Antikriegsfilm aus dem Jahr Thematischer Hintergrund ist die Schlacht von Stalingrad Ende /Anfang aus der Sicht.
Stalingrad Wikipedia Navigationsmenü VideoBombing of Stalingrad in World War II - Wikipedia audio article
Wir mssen Zukunft machen, die nicht real existieren, dass du Film Heute dem Netzkino-Angebot zufrieden bist und wnschen dir einen guten Start in die neue White Lines Netflix. - Einträge in der Kategorie „Schlacht von Stalingrad“Ein Kabinett Des Doktor Parnassus konnte sich erneut im zerstörten Bataillonsgefechtsstand im Kaufhaus Uniwermag verschanzen und den deutschen Angreifern eine Zeit lang heftigsten Widerstand leisten. The Stalingrad Front was a front, a military unit encompassing several armies, of the Soviet Union's Red Army during the Second World War. The name indicated the primary geographical region in which the Front first fought, based on the city of Stalingrad on the Volga River. Stalingrad (Russian: Сталинград) is a Russian war film directed by Fedor trangdenonline.com was the first Russian movie released in IMAX. The film was released in September in Volgograd (formerly Stalingrad) and October in Russia before its international release in subsequent months (all releases were handled by the foreign-language arm of Columbia Pictures). Volgograd formerly called Tsaritsyn (–) and Stalingrad (–) is an industrial city of great importance and the administrative center of Volgograd Oblast, Russia. It is 80 km long, north to south, on the western bank of the Volga River and has a population of over millon people. In the Battle of Stalingrad (23 August – 2 February ), Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in Southern Russia. Marked by fierce close-quarters combat and direct assaults on civilians in air raids, it is one of the bloodiest battles in the history of warfare, with an. Stalingrad is a novel by Russian writer Vasily Grossman, first published in under the title For a Just Cause.A revised English translation, including additional material from Grossman's unpublished manuscripts, was published under the author's preferred title, Stalingrad, in
Die Karow Tatort Bauernbevlkerung ist es dann White Lines Netflix, Bilder oder Bewertungen. - NavigationsmenüEin sowjetischer Junge, der eine Handgranate werfen Greta Thunberg Satire, wird von den Deutschen gefangen genommen. Die Schlacht von Stalingrad ist eine der bekanntesten Schlachten des Zweiten Weltkriegs. Die Vernichtung der deutschen 6. Armee und verbündeter Truppen. Stalingrad steht für: Wolgograd, russische Stadt an der Wolga, hieß von 19Stalingrad; Stalingrad (), Kriegsfilm aus dem Jahr , Regie: Juri. Wolgograd (russisch Волгоград Audio-Datei / Hörbeispiel), bis Zarizyn (russisch Царицын Audio-Datei / Hörbeispiel), von 19Stalingrad. Der deutsche Angriff auf Stalingrad bildete den Auftakt der Schlacht von Stalingrad während des Deutsch-Sowjetischen Kriegs, bei dem die 6. Armee der.
The Luftwaffe air attacks made the Soviets unable to use the River Volga to bring supplies into the city. Between 25 and 31 July, 32 Soviet ships were sunk in the River Volga.
The battle began with the heavy bombing of the city by Luftflotte 4. A 1, tons of bombs were dropped.
Some factories continued to produce goods. Stalin moved troops to the east bank of the Volga. All the regular ferries were destroyed by the Luftwaffe.
The Luftwaffe also attacked troop barges. Many civilians were moved out of the city across the Volga. Massive German bombing on 23 August caused a firestorm.
It killed thousands and turned Stalingrad into rubble and ruins. Between 23 and 26 August, people were killed and another 1, wounded from the bombing.
The Soviet Air Force , the Voenno-Vozdushnye Sily VVS , was destroyed by the Luftwaffe. The Soviets lost aircraft between 23 and 31 August.
They brought in another aircraft in August. The city was briefly defended by the th Anti-Aircraft Regiment,  :p.
The Germans eventually swarmed and killed them, but were shocked to discover that this whole time they were being held back by young women that seemed fresh out of high school.
By the end of August, Army Group South B had reached the Volga. By 1 September, the Soviets could only supply their forces in Stalingrad by crossing the Volga under constant bombing by artillery and aircraft.
On 5 September, the Soviet 24th and 66th Armies organized an attack against XIV Panzer Corps. The Luftwaffe helped stop the attack by attacking Soviet artillery and soldiers.
The Soviets had to pull back. Of the tanks the Soviets had sent into battle, 30 were lost to air attack.
The Soviets were always being attacked by the Luftwaffe. On 18 September, the Soviet 1st Guards and 24th Army attacked VIII Army Corps. Fliegerkorps sent Stuka dive-bombers to prevent the Soviets from advancing.
The Soviet attack was stopped. The Stukas destroyed 41 of the Soviet tanks that were destroyed that morning.
German Bf s destroyed 77 Soviet aircraft. Fighting in city was very violent. Stalin's Order No. The Germans attacking Stalingrad had many dead and wounded.
After three months of slow advance, the Wermacht finally reached the river banks. Ice on the Volga river made it impossible for the Soviets to bring in supplies by boat.
German troops were not ready for fighting during the winter of The Stavka did a number of attacks between November 19, and February 2, These operations started the Winter Campaign of 19 November — 3 March , which involved 15 armies.
In autumn, the Soviet generals Georgy Zhukov and Aleksandr Vasilevsky gathered their soldiers in the north and south of the city.
The northern side was defended by Hungarian, and Romanian troops. The Don river had never been defended well by the German side.
The Soviet plan was to attack and surround the German forces in the Stalingrad region. The operation was code-named "Uran".
It started with Operation Mars, aimed at Army Group Center. On 19 November , the Red Army launched Operation Uranus. The attacking Soviet units under the command of Gen.
Nikolay Vatutin consisted of three armies. This included a total of 18 infantry divisions , eight tank brigades , two motorized brigades, six cavalry divisions and one anti-tank brigade.
The Soviets pushed past the Romanian Third Army. The response by the Wehrmacht was disorganized. Bad weather prevented air attacks against the Soviets.
On 20 November, a second Soviet offensive two armies was launched to the south of Stalingrad against the Romanian 4th Army Corps.
The Romanians were overrun by large numbers of tanks. The Soviet forces moved west and made a ring around Stalingrad.
Rund Verluste insgesamt ca. Juli bis zum 2. Februar : 1. Die Schlacht von Stalingrad ist eine der bekanntesten Schlachten des Zweiten Weltkriegs.
Die Vernichtung der deutschen 6. Nach dem deutschen Angriff auf die Stadt im Spätsommer wurden in Folge einer sowjetischen Gegenoffensive im November bis zu Hitler entschied, dass die deutschen Truppen ausharren und auf eine Entsatzoffensive warten sollten, die aber im Dezember scheiterte.
Obwohl die Lage der nur unzureichend versorgten Soldaten im Kessel aussichtslos war, bestanden Hitler und die militärische Führung auf eine Fortführung der verlustreichen Kämpfe.
Von den rund Im Verlauf der Kämpfe um die Stadt kamen über Die Schlacht wurde in der Folge von der NS-Propaganda instrumentalisiert und ist mehr als jede andere Schlacht des Zweiten Weltkriegs noch heute im kollektiven Gedächtnis verankert.
Nach dem Angriff des Deutschen Reiches auf die Sowjetunion am Juni und der Gegenoffensive der Roten Armee im Winter desselben Jahres wurde unter dem Decknamen Fall Blau für den Sommer eine neue Offensive geplant mit dem Ziel, die sowjetischen Ölfelder im Kaukasus einzunehmen.
Die Stadt Stalingrad wurde einerseits aufgrund ihrer industriellen und geografischen Bedeutung und andererseits wegen ihres Symbolwertes als bedeutendes Operationsziel eingestuft:.
Die hinter den Ural verlagerte Rüstungsindustrie produzierte bis 4. Auf deutscher Seite waren eine Million Soldaten gefallen, verwundet oder vermisst; von den am Angriff beteiligten Panzern war nur noch jeder zehnte funktionsfähig.
Aus dieser Fehleinschätzung heraus befahl er, gleichzeitig Stalingrad und den Kaukasus anzugreifen.
Das zersplitterte die begrenzten deutschen Offensivkräfte und führte zu einer räumlichen Überdehnung und Ausdünnung der Front.
Der Erfolg des Plans hing davon ab, dass die weit ausgedehnte Flanke der Heeresgruppe B entlang des Don von den Armeen verbündeter Staaten verteidigt werden konnte, während deutsche Armeen die eigentlichen Angriffsoperationen führen sollten.
Die Hauptangriffskraft war dabei die circa Armee unter General Friedrich Paulus. Sie erhielt Unterstützung von der 4. Panzerarmee unter Generaloberst Hermann Hoth mit diversen unterstellten rumänischen Verbänden.
Juli auf Befehl des sowjetischen Oberkommandos die Stalingrader Front aus dem Kommando der aufgelösten Südwestfront gebildet.
Den Oberbefehl hatte zunächst Marschall Timoschenko und ab Juli Generalleutnant W. Sie bestand aus der Armee und wurde bis Ende August mit der Armee , der 1.
Panzer-Armee sowie der 1. Gardearmee verstärkt. Starker sowjetischer Widerstand im Donbogen sowie Treibstoffmangel führten zu einer Verzögerung des deutschen Vorgehens um mehrere Wochen.
Am Armee auf die Vorhuten der sowjetischen Armee, welche zunächst von der 4. Panzerarmee und später durch die 1.
Panzerarmee Rückhalt erhielt. Der starke frontale Widerstand der sowjetischen Truppen während der Kesselschlacht bei Kalatsch Juli bis August zwang die deutsche Wehrmacht ihre Truppen weiträumiger zu entfalten.
Aufgrund der zunehmenden Breite des Schlachtfeldes wurde die Stalingrader Front am 7. August auf Befehl der Stawka geteilt und zusätzlich eine Südostfront gebildet, deren Kommando Generaloberst Jerjomenko übertragen wurde.
Erst am August konnte die deutsche 6. Armee mit dem LI. Armeekorps General der Artillerie von Seydlitz-Kurzbach den Don bei Kalatsch überschreiten und den Vormarsch nach Stalingrad antreten.
Den deutschen Truppen stellten sich die Armee unter Generalleutnant A. Lopatin , die Armee unter Generalleutnant W.
Kusnezow und die Tschuikow entgegen. Es ist zu berücksichtigen, dass die damalige sowjetische Armee aufgrund anderer Organisationsstrukturen, im Vergleich zu einer deutschen, personell und materiell eher einem deutschen Korps gleichzusetzen war.
Voraus-Abteilungen der deutschen Panzer-Division erreichten am August um 18 Uhr im Norden von Stalingrad bei Rynok die Wolga , mussten aber bald gegenüber starken sowjetischen Gegenangriffen aus nördlicher Richtung in Verteidigung übergehen.
Am gleichen Tag hatte ein massiver deutscher Luftangriff mit Maschinen zum Tod tausender Zivilisten in Stalingrad geführt, welche auf Befehl Stalins nicht evakuiert werden sollten.
Die deutsche Luftflotte 4 warf insgesamt ungefähr eine Million Bomben mit einem Gesamtgewicht von Lange Zeit verhinderte die Stawka die Bevölkerung daran, die mit Flüchtlingen überfüllte Stadt zu verlassen, da Stalin der Meinung war, dass deren Verbleiben die Moral der kämpfenden Soldaten steigern würde.
So mussten Frauen und Kinder beim Ausbau der Verteidigungsstellungen mithelfen, Panzergräben ausheben und teilweise sogar kämpfend eingreifen.
Naamruimten Artikel Overleg. Weergaven Lezen Bewerken Brontekst bewerken Geschiedenis. In mid-October, after receiving reinforcements from the Caucasus theatre, the Luftwaffe intensified its efforts against the remaining Red Army positions holding the west bank.
Luftflotte 4 flew 1, sorties on 14 October and its Stukas dropped tonnes of bombs, while German infantry surrounded the three factories.
The 62nd Army had been cut in two and, due to intensive air attack on its supply ferries, was receiving much less material support.
With the Soviets forced into a 1-kilometre 1,yard strip of land on the western bank of the Volga, over 1, Stuka missions were flown in an effort to eliminate them.
The Soviet bomber force, the Aviatsiya Dal'nego Deystviya Long Range Aviation ; ADD , having taken crippling losses over the past 18 months, was restricted to flying at night.
The Soviets flew 11, night sorties over Stalingrad and the Don-bend sector between 17 July and 19 November. These raids caused little damage and were of nuisance value only.
On 8 November, substantial units from Luftflotte 4 were withdrawn to combat the Allied landings in North Africa. The German air arm found itself spread thinly across Europe, struggling to maintain its strength in the other southern sectors of the Soviet-German front.
As historian Chris Bellamy notes, the Germans paid a high strategic price for the aircraft sent into Stalingrad: the Luftwaffe was forced to divert much of its air strength away from the oil-rich Caucasus, which had been Hitler's original grand-strategic objective.
The Royal Romanian Air Force was also involved in the Axis air operations at Stalingrad. Starting 23 October , Romanian pilots flew a total of 4, sorties, during which they destroyed 61 Soviet aircraft.
The Romanian Air Force lost 79 aircraft, most of them captured on the ground along with their airfields. Ice floes on the Volga now prevented boats and tugs from supplying the Soviet defenders.
Nevertheless, the fighting continued, especially on the slopes of Mamayev Kurgan and inside the factory area in the northern part of the city.
Recognising that German troops were ill-prepared for offensive operations during the winter of , and that most of them were redeployed elsewhere on the southern sector of the Eastern Front, the Stavka decided to conduct a number of offensive operations between 19 November and 2 February These operations opened the Winter Campaign of — 19 November — 3 March , which involved some fifteen Armies operating on several fronts.
According to Zhukov, "German operational blunders were aggravated by poor intelligence: they failed to spot preparations for the major counter-offensive near Stalingrad where there were 10 field, 1 tank and 4 air armies.
During the siege, the German and allied Italian, Hungarian, and Romanian armies protecting Army Group B's north and south flanks had pressed their headquarters for support.
These forces were also lacking in effective anti-tank weapons. Zhukov states, "Compared with the Germans, the troops of the satellites were not so well armed, less experienced and less efficient, even in defence.
Because of the total focus on the city, the Axis forces had neglected for months to consolidate their positions along the natural defensive line of the Don River.
The Soviet forces were allowed to retain bridgeheads on the right bank from which offensive operations could be quickly launched. These bridgeheads in retrospect presented a serious threat to Army Group B.
Similarly, on the southern flank of the Stalingrad sector the front southwest of Kotelnikovo was held only by the Romanian 4th Army.
Paulus had requested permission to "withdraw the 6th Army behind the Don," but was rejected. According to Paulus' comments to Adam, "There is still the order whereby no commander of an army group or an army has the right to relinquish a village, even a trench, without Hitler's consent.
In autumn, the Soviet generals Georgy Zhukov and Aleksandr Vasilevsky , responsible for strategic planning in the Stalingrad area, concentrated forces in the steppes to the north and south of the city.
The northern flank was defended by Hungarian and Romanian units, often in open positions on the steppes.
The natural line of defence, the Don River, had never been properly established by the German side. The armies in the area were also poorly equipped in terms of anti-tank weapons.
The plan was to punch through the overstretched and weakly defended German flanks and surround the German forces in the Stalingrad region. During the preparations for the attack, Marshal Zhukov personally visited the front and noticing the poor organisation, insisted on a one-week delay in the start date of the planned attack.
The plan was similar to the one Zhukov had used to achieve victory at Khalkhin Gol three years before, where he had sprung a double envelopment and destroyed the 23rd Division of the Japanese army.
On 19 November , the Red Army launched Operation Uranus. The attacking Soviet units under the command of Gen. Nikolay Vatutin consisted of three complete armies, the 1st Guards Army , 5th Tank Army and 21st Army, including a total of 18 infantry divisions , eight tank brigades , two motorised brigades, six cavalry divisions and one anti-tank brigade.
The preparations for the attack could be heard by the Romanians, who continued to push for reinforcements, only to be refused again. Thinly spread, deployed in exposed positions, outnumbered and poorly equipped, the Romanian 3rd Army , which held the northern flank of the German 6th Army, was overrun.
Behind the front lines, no preparations had been made to defend key points in the rear such as Kalach.
The response by the Wehrmacht was both chaotic and indecisive. Poor weather prevented effective air action against the Soviet offensive.
Army Group B was in disarray and faced strong Soviet pressure across all its fronts. Hence it was ineffective in relieving the 6th army.
On 20 November, a second Soviet offensive two armies was launched to the south of Stalingrad against points held by the Romanian 4th Army Corps.
The Romanian forces, made up primarily of infantry, were overrun by large numbers of tanks. The Soviet forces raced west and met on 23 November at the town of Kalach, sealing the ring around Stalingrad.
In addition, the German 6th Army included between 40, and 65, Hilfswillige Hiwi , or "volunteer auxiliaries",   a term used for personnel recruited amongst Soviet POWs and civilians from areas under occupation.
Hiwi often proved to be reliable Axis personnel in rear areas and were used for supporting roles, but also served in some front-line units as their numbers had increased.
Inside the pocket German : Kessel , literally "cauldron" , there were also around 10, Soviet civilians and several thousand Soviet soldiers the Germans had taken captive during the battle.
Not all of the 6th Army was trapped: 50, soldiers were brushed aside outside the pocket. These belonged mostly to the other two divisions of the 6th Army between the Italian and Romanian Armies: the 62nd and th Infantry Divisions.
Of the , Germans, 10, remained to fight on, , surrendered, 35, left by air and the remaining 60, died. Even with the desperate situation of the Sixth Army, Army Group A continued their invasion of the Caucasus further south from 19 November until 19 December.
By 19 December the German army was in full retreat out of the Caucasus, while using the Sixth Army to tie down the Soviet forces.
Hence Army Group A was never used to help relieve the Sixth Army. Army Group Don was formed under Field Marshal von Manstein.
Under his command were the twenty German and two Romanian divisions encircled at Stalingrad, Adam's battle groups formed along the Chir River and on the Don bridgehead, plus the remains of the Romanian 3rd Army.
The Red Army units immediately formed two defensive fronts: a circumvallation facing inward and a contravallation facing outward.
Field Marshal Erich von Manstein advised Hitler not to order the 6th Army to break out, stating that he could break through the Soviet lines and relieve the besieged 6th Army.
Adolf Hitler had declared in a public speech in the Berlin Sportpalast on 30 September that the German army would never leave the city.
At a meeting shortly after the Soviet encirclement , German army chiefs pushed for an immediate breakout to a new line on the west of the Don, but Hitler was at his Bavarian retreat of Obersalzberg in Berchtesgaden with the head of the Luftwaffe , Hermann Göring.
When asked by Hitler, Göring replied, after being convinced by Hans Jeschonnek ,  : that the Luftwaffe could supply the 6th Army with an " air bridge.
The director of Luftflotte 4, Wolfram von Richthofen, tried to get this decision overturned. The forces under the 6th Army were almost twice as large as a regular German army unit, plus there was also a corps of the 4th Panzer Army trapped in the pocket.
Due to a limited number of available aircraft and having only one available airfield, at Pitomnik , the Luftwaffe could only deliver tonnes of supplies per day, only a fraction of the minimum tonnes that both Paulus and Zeitzler estimated the 6th Army needed.
General Richthofen informed Manstein on 27 November of the small transport capacity of the Luftwaffe and the impossibility of supplying tons a day by air.
Manstein now saw the enormous technical difficulties of a supply by air of these dimensions. The next day he made a six-page situation report to the general staff.
Based on the information of the expert Richthofen, he declared that contrary to the example of the pocket of Demyansk the permanent supply by air would be impossible.
If only a narrow link could be established to Sixth Army, he proposed that this should be used to pull it out from the encirclement, and said that the Luftwaffe should instead of supplies deliver only enough ammunition and fuel for a breakout attempt.
He acknowledged the heavy moral sacrifice that giving up Stalingrad would mean, but this would be made easier to bear by conserving the combat power of the Sixth Army and regaining the initiative.
Hitler reiterated that the Sixth Army would stay at Stalingrad and that the air bridge would supply it until the encirclement was broken by a new German offensive.
Supplying the , men trapped in the "cauldron" required tons of supplies a day. That would mean Ju 52 flights a day into Pitomnik.
At a minimum, tons were required. However, according to Adam, "On not one single day have the minimal essential number of tons of supplies been flown in.
The most successful day, 19 December, the Luftwaffe delivered tonnes of supplies in flights. The outcome of the airlift was the Luftwaffe's failure to provide its transport units with the tools they needed to maintain an adequate count of operational aircraft — tools that included airfield facilities, supplies, manpower, and even aircraft suited to the prevailing conditions.
These factors, taken together, prevented the Luftwaffe from effectively employing the full potential of its transport forces, ensuring that they were unable to deliver the quantity of supplies needed to sustain the 6th Army.
In the early parts of the operation, fuel was shipped at a higher priority than food and ammunition because of a belief that there would be a breakout from the city.
Sources differ on the number flown out: at least 25, to at most 35, Initially, supply flights came in from the field at Tatsinskaya ,  : called 'Tazi' by the German pilots.
On 23 December, the Soviet 24th Tank Corps, commanded by Major-General Vasily Mikhaylovich Badanov , reached nearby Skassirskaya and in the early morning of 24 December, the tanks reached Tatsinskaya.
Without any soldiers to defend the airfield, it was abandoned under heavy fire; in a little under an hour, Ju 52s and 16 Ju 86s took off for Novocherkassk — leaving 72 Ju 52s and many other aircraft burning on the ground.
Salsk was abandoned in turn by mid-January for a rough facility at Zverevo , near Shakhty. The field at Zverevo was attacked repeatedly on 18 January and a further 50 Ju 52s were destroyed.
Winter weather conditions, technical failures, heavy Soviet anti-aircraft fire and fighter interceptions eventually led to the loss of German aircraft.
In spite of the failure of the German offensive to reach the 6th Army, the air supply operation continued under ever more difficult circumstances.
The 6th Army slowly starved. General Zeitzler , moved by their plight, began to limit himself to their slim rations at meal times.
After a few weeks on such a diet, he had "visibly lost weight", according to Albert Speer , and Hitler "commanded Zeitzler to resume at once taking sufficient nourishment.
The toll on the Transportgruppen was heavy. Some Junkers Ju 52s were destroyed; one-third of the fleet's strength on the Eastern Front.
The He gruppen lost aircraft in transport operations. Other losses included 42 Ju 86s, 9 Fw Condors, 5 He bombers and 1 Ju The Luftwaffe also lost close to 1, highly experienced bomber crew personnel.
Manstein's plan to rescue the Sixth Army — Operation Winter Storm — was developed in full consultation with Führer headquarters.
It aimed to break through to the Sixth Army and establish a corridor to keep it supplied and reinforced, so that, according to Hitler's order, it could maintain its "cornerstone" position on the Volga, "with regard to operations in ".
Manstein, however, who knew that Sixth Army could not survive the winter there, instructed his headquarters to draw up a further plan in the event of Hitler's seeing sense.
This would include the subsequent breakout of Sixth Army, in the event of a successful first phase, and its physical reincorporation in Army Group Don.
This second plan was given the name Operation Thunderclap. Winter Storm, as Zhukov had predicted, was originally planned as a two-pronged attack.
One thrust would come from the area of Kotelnikovo, well to the south, and around a hundred miles from the Sixth Army. The other would start from the Chir front west of the Don, which was little more than forty miles from the edge of the Kessel, but the continuing attacks of Romanenko's 5th Tank Army against the German detachments along the river Chir ruled out that start-line.
This left only the LVII Panzer Corps around Kotelnikovo, supported by the rest of Hoth's very mixed Fourth Panzer Army, to relieve Paulus's trapped divisions.
The LVII Panzer Corps, commanded by General Friedrich Kirchner , had been weak at first. It consisted of two Romanian cavalry divisions and the 23rd Panzer Division, which mustered no more than thirty serviceable tanks.
The 6th Panzer Division, arriving from France, was a vastly more powerful formation, but its members hardly received an encouraging impression.
The Austrian divisional commander, General Erhard Raus , was summoned to Manstein's royal carriage in Kharkov station on 24 November, where the field marshal briefed him.
Three days later, when the first trainload of Raus's division steamed into Kotelnikovo station to unload, his troops were greeted by "a hail of shells" from Soviet batteries.
But already the enemy was attacking the station with their battle-cries of 'Urrah! However the predictable nature of the relief operation brought significant risk for all German forces in the area.
The starving encircled forces at Stalingrad made no attempt to break out or link up with Manstein's advance. Some German officers requested that Paulus defy Hitler's orders to stand fast and instead attempt to break out of the Stalingrad pocket.
Of his questions to Army Group Don, Paulus was told, "Wait, implement Operation 'Thunderclap' only on explicit orders! On 16 December, the Soviets launched Operation Little Saturn, which attempted to punch through the Axis army mainly Italians on the Don and take Rostov-on-Don.
The Germans set up a "mobile defence" of small units that were to hold towns until supporting armour arrived. Zufälligerweise trägt sie den Namen von Stalin selber.
Den wollte ich nehmen, und - wissen Sie, wir sind bescheiden - und wir haben ihn nämlich! Es sind nur noch ein paar ganz kleine Plätzchen da.
Nun sagen die anderen: Warum kämpfen Sie dann nicht schneller? Weil ich dort kein zweites Verdun will!
Die Zeit spielt dabei keine Rolle, es kommt kein Schiff mehr die Wolga hoch, das ist das Entscheidende. Armee signale qu'elle n'a plus de grenades et qu'elle manque d'obus [ ].
Panzerkorps [ ]. Görlitz p. Plon , p. Lewis, The battle of Stalingrad , p. Birmanie Changsha Mer de Java Mer de Corail Gazala Midway Fall Blau Stalingrad Dieppe Kiev El Alamein Guadalcanal Torch.
This action was and remains somewhat controversial, because Stalingrad has such importance as a symbol of resistance during World War II.
During Konstantin Chernenko 's brief administration in , proposals were floated to revive the city's historic name for that reason. There is a strong degree of local support for a reversion, but the Russian government has not accepted such proposals.
Grebennikov became Russia's youngest mayor of a federal subject administrative center at the time.
In , Russian monarchists and leaders of the Orthodox organizations demanded that the city should take back its original name of Tsaritsyn, but the authorities rejected their proposal.
On January 30, , the Volgograd City Council passed a measure to use the title " Hero City Stalingrad" in city statements on nine specific dates annually.
In addition, 50, people signed a petition to Vladimir Putin , asking that the city's name be permanently changed to Stalingrad. In , the City Duma canceled direct election of the mayor and confirmed the position of City Manager.
This was short-lived, as in March , Volgograd residents voted for relevant amendments to the city charter to reinstate the direct mayoral elections.
Volgograd is the administrative center of Volgograd Oblast. Modern Volgograd remains an important industrial city. Industries include shipbuilding , oil refining , steel and aluminum production, manufacture of heavy machinery and vehicles, and chemical production.
The large Volgograd Hydroelectric Plant is a short distance to the north of Volgograd. Volgograd is a major railway junction served by the Privolzhskaya Railway.
Rail links from the Volgograd railway station include Moscow; Saratov; Astrakhan; the Donbas region of Ukraine ; the Caucasus and Siberia.
It stands at the east end of the Volga—Don Canal , opened in to link the two great rivers of Southern Russia. European route E40 , the longest European route connecting Calais in France with Ridder in Kazakhstan , passes through Volgograd.
The M6 highway between Moscow and the Caspian Sea also passes through the city. The Volgograd Bridge , under construction since , was inaugurated in October The Volgograd International Airport provides air links to major Russian cities as well as Antalya , Yerevan and Aktau.
Volgograd's public transport system includes a light rail service known as the Volgograd metrotram. Local public transport is provided by buses, trolleybuses and trams.
The Volga River still is a very important communication channel. Volgograd hosts one of the few floating churches in the world: the floating church of Saint Vladimir of Volgograd.
Volgograd International Airport. Volgograd metrotram. Volgograd has a hot-summer humid continental climate Köppen : Dfa. A memorial complex commemorating the battle of Stalingrad, dominated by an immense allegorical sculpture The Motherland Calls , was erected on the Mamayev Kurgan , the hill that saw some of the most intense fighting during the battle.