Woran soll man sich als Philosoph festhalten? G. W. F. Hegel auf einer Lithografie von Julius Ludwig Sebbers - mit einer kleinen, nahrhaften. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel gehört zu den Größen der Philosophiegeschichte. Ein Interview über Schriften und Gedanken zum Der ungebildete Mensch, nicht der gebildete." Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Philosoph. In diesem Jahr ist Hegels Geburtstag. 13 Jahre.
Hegel und seine Philosophie des WeltgeistesDer ungebildete Mensch, nicht der gebildete." Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Philosoph. In diesem Jahr ist Hegels Geburtstag. 13 Jahre. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel war ein deutscher Philosoph, der als wichtigster Vertreter des deutschen Idealismus gilt. Religionsphilosophie; Philosophie und Geschichte der Philosophie; Enzyklopädie der.
Philosophe Hegel Navigation menu VideoHegels Philosophie, Theorien und Dialektik erklärt - Gespräch -Sternstunde Philosophie - SRF Kultur Born in in Stuttgart, Hegel spent the years – as a student in nearby Tübingen, studying first philosophy, and then theology, and forming friendships with fellow students, the future great romantic poet Friedrich Hölderlin (–) and Friedrich von Schelling (–), who, like Hegel, would become one of the major figures of the German philosophical scene in the first half of the nineteenth century. Hegel, the philosopher of the System. Hegel is a German philosopher who built a vast system ordering all knowledge of his time, after Kant‘s attempt to do it. Among his main works: The Phenomenology of Spirit () Philosophical Propaedeutics () Science of Logic (). According to Hegel, Heraclitus's "obscurity" comes from his being a true (in Hegel's terms "speculative") philosopher who grasped the ultimate philosophical truth and therefore expressed himself in a way that goes beyond the abstract and limited nature of common sense and is difficult to grasp by those who operate within common sense. Georg Hegel is considered one of the greatest thinkers in Western Philosophy’s history. His many works include The Phenomenology of the Spirit (), Science of Logic (), and Encyclopedia of Philosophical Sciences (). Hegel's method in philosophy consists of the triadic development (Entwicklung) in each concept and each thing. Thus, he hopes, philosophy will not contradict experience, but experience will give data to the philosophical, which is the ultimately true explanation. This consists of a three-part process.
Netflix Verschenken Live Stream HD, mit der er seit Jahren befreundet ist und die ihn Philosophe Hegel liebt. - Nächstes VideoHartnack: Hegels LogikS.
Molitor, t. IV, p. Vieillard-Baron, op. Hildesheim, Olms, , pp. Naissance de l'hypnose , PUF, Le Capital.
Sociales, De la Logophonie comme chant du signe. Hegel or Georg Hegel - was a German philosopher of the early Modern period.
He was a leading figure in the German Idealism movement in the early 19th Century , although his ideas went far beyond earlier Kantianism , and he founded his own school of Hegelianism.
He has been called the " Aristotle of modern times", and he used his system of dialectics to explain the whole of the history of philosophy, science, art, politics and religion.
Despite charges of obscurantism and "pseudo-philosophy" , Hegel is often considered the summit of early 19th Century German thought.
His influence has been immense , both within philosophy and in the other sciences, and he came to have a profound impact on many future philosophical schools whether they supported or opposed his ideas , not the least of which was the Marxism of Karl Marx which was to have so profound an effect on the political landscape of the 20th Century.
Hegel pronounced HAY-gul was born on 27 August in Stuttgart in south-western Germany. Hegel had a younger sister, Christiane Luise who was later committed to an asylum and eventually drowned herself , and a younger brother, Georg Ludwig who was to die in Napoleon's Russian campaign of At the age of three, Hegel went to the "German School", and entered the "Latin School" at age five, and then attended Stuttgart's Gymnasium Illustre high school from to He was a serious, hard-working and successful student , and a voracious reader from a young age, including Shakespeare, the ancient Greek philosophers, the Bible and German literature.
In addition to German and Latin, he learned Greek , Hebrew , French and English. The three became close friends , sharing a dislike for the restrictive environment of the seminary.
In , Hegel secured a position as an unsalaried lecturer at the University of Jena with the encouragement of his old friend Schelling , who was Extraordinary Professor there.
He lectured on Logic and Metaphysics and, with Schelling , gave joint lectures on an "Introduction to the Idea and Limits of True Philosophy" and held a "Philosophical Disputorium".
In , Schelling and Hegel founded a journal, the "Kritische Journal der Philosophie" "Critical Journal of Philosophy" , and he produced his first real book on philosophy, "Differenz des Fichteschen und Schellingschen Systems der Philosophie" "The Difference between Fichte's and Schelling's Systems of Philosophy" in The same year, he had an illegitimate son, Georg Ludwig Friedrich Fischer by his landlady, Christiana Burkhardt who had been abandoned by her husband.
However, unable to find more suitable employment, he was then forced to move from Jena and to accept a position as editor of a newspaper, the "Bamberger Zeitung" , in Bamberg.
From until , he was headmaster of a gymnasium in Nuremberg , where he adapted his "Phenomenology of Mind" for use in the classroom, and developed the idea of a comprehensive encyclopedia of the philosophical sciences later published in In , he married Marie Helena Susanna von Tucher , the eldest daughter of a Senator, and they had two sons, Karl Friedrich Wilhelm in and Immanuel Thomas Christian in and, in , his illegitimate son, Ludwig Fischer, who was by then orphaned , joined the Hegel household.
This period saw the publication of his second major work, "Wissenschaft der Logik" "Science of Logic" in three volumes in , and From to , Hegel taught at the University of Heidelberg , and then he took an offer for the chair of philosophy at the University of Berlin , where he remained until his death in What distinguishes them from materialists like Epicurus and Thomas Hobbes and from empiricists like David Hume , is that they regarded freedom or self-determination as real and having important ontological implications for soul or mind or divinity.
This focus on freedom is what generates Plato's notion in the Phaedo , Republic and Timaeus of the soul as having a higher or fuller kind of reality than that possessed by inanimate objects.
While Aristotle criticized Plato's "Forms", he preserved Plato's ontological implications for self-determination: ethical reasoning, the soul's pinnacle in the hierarchy of nature, the order of the cosmos and reasoned arguments for a prime mover.
Kant imported Plato's high esteem of individual sovereignty into his considerations of moral and noumenal freedom as well as of God. In his discussion of "Spirit" in his Encyclopedia , Hegel praises Aristotle's On the Soul as "by far the most admirable, perhaps even the sole, work of philosophical value on this topic".
Rather than simply rejecting Kant's dualism of freedom versus nature, Hegel aims to subsume it within "true infinity", the "Concept" or " Notion ": Begriff , "Spirit" and "ethical life" in such a way that the Kantian duality is rendered intelligible, rather than remaining a brute "given".
The reason why this subsumption takes place in a series of concepts is that Hegel's method in his Science of Logic and his Encyclopedia is to begin with basic concepts like "Being" and "Nothing" and to develop these through a long sequence of elaborations, including those already mentioned.
In this manner, a solution that is reached in principle in the account of "true infinity" in the Science of Logic' s chapter on "Quality" is repeated in new guises at later stages, all the way to "Spirit" and "ethical life" in the third volume of the Encyclopedia.
In this way, Hegel defended the truth in Kantian dualism against reductive or eliminative programs like materialism and empiricism.
Like Plato, with his dualism of soul versus bodily appetites, Kant pursued the mind's ability to question its felt inclinations or appetites and to come up with a standard of "duty" or, in Plato's case, "good" which transcends bodily restrictiveness.
Hegel preserved this essential Platonic and Kantian concern in the form of infinity going beyond the finite a process that Hegel in fact related to "freedom" and the "ought" ,  : —, the universal going beyond the particular in the Concept and Spirit going beyond Nature.
Hegel rendered these dualities intelligible by ultimately his argument in the "Quality" chapter of the "Science of Logic".
The finite has to become infinite in order to achieve reality. The idea of the absolute excludes multiplicity so the subjective and objective must achieve synthesis to become whole.
This is because, as Hegel suggested by his introduction of the concept of "reality",  : what determines itself—rather than depending on its relations to other things for its essential character—is more fully "real" following the Latin etymology of "real", more "thing-like" than what does not.
Finite things do not determine themselves because, as "finite" things, their essential character is determined by their boundaries over against other finite things, so in order to become "real" they must go beyond their finitude "finitude is only as a transcending of itself".
The result of this argument is that finite and infinite—particular and universal, nature and freedom—do not face one another as independent realities, but instead the latter, in each case, is the self-transcending of the former.
The mystical writings of Jakob Böhme had a strong effect on Hegel. This evolution was the result of God's desire for complete self-awareness.
Hegel was fascinated by the works of Kant, Rousseau and Johann Wolfgang Goethe and by the French Revolution. Modern philosophy, culture and society seemed to Hegel fraught with contradictions and tensions, such as those between the subject and object of knowledge, mind and nature, self and Other , freedom and authority, knowledge and faith, or the Enlightenment and Romanticism.
Hegel's main philosophical project was to take these contradictions and tensions and interpret them as part of a comprehensive, evolving, rational unity that in different contexts he called "the absolute Idea" Science of Logic , sections — or "absolute knowledge" Phenomenology of Spirit , " DD Absolute Knowledge".
According to Hegel, this unity evolved through and manifested itself in contradiction and negation. Contradiction and negation have the dynamic quality that every point in each domain of reality — consciousness , history, philosophy, art, nature and society—leads to further development until a rational unity is reached that preserves the contradictions as phases and sub-parts by lifting them up Aufhebung to a higher unity.
This mind comprehends all of these phases and sub-parts as steps in its own process of comprehension. It is rational because the same, underlying, logical , developmental order underlies every domain of reality and self-conscious rational thought, although only in the later stages of development does it come to full self-consciousness.
The rational, self-conscious whole is not a thing or being that lies outside of other existing things or minds. Rather, it comes to completion in the philosophical comprehension of individual existing human minds who through their own understanding bring this developmental process to an understanding of itself.
Hegel's thought is revolutionary in that it is a philosophy of absolute negation—as long as absolute negation is at the center, systematization remains open, making it possible for human beings to become subjects.
In Hegel's draft manuscripts written during his time at the University of Jena, his notion of "Geist" was tightly bound to the notion of " Aether ", from which he also derived the concepts of space and time , but in his later works after Jena he did not explicitly use his old notion of "Aether".
Central to Hegel's conception of knowledge , mind, and reality was identity in difference ; mind externalizes itself in various forms and objects and stands outside or opposed to them and, through recognizing itself in them, is "with itself" in these external manifestations so that they are at one and the same time mind and other-than-mind.
This notion of identity in difference, which is bound up with his conception of contradiction and negativity, is a principal feature differentiating Hegel's thought from other philosophers.
Hegel distinguished between civil society and state in his Elements of the Philosophy of Right. On the left, it became the foundation for Karl Marx 's civil society as an economic base ;  to the right, it became a description for all non-state and the state is the peak of the objective spirit aspects of society, including culture, society and politics.
This liberal distinction between political society and civil society was used by Alexis de Tocqueville.
While it appears that he felt that a civil society, such as the one in which he lived, was an inevitable step in the dialectic, he allowed for the crushing of other "lesser," not fully realized civil societies as they were not fully conscious of their lack of progress.
It was perfectly legitimate in Hegel's eyes for a conqueror, such as Napoleon, to come and destroy that which was not fully realized.
Hegel's State is the final culmination of the embodiment of freedom or right Rechte in the Elements of the Philosophy of Right. The State subsumes family and civil society and fulfills them.
All three together are called "ethical life" Sittlichkeit. The State involves three " moments ". In a Hegelian State, citizens both know their place and choose their place.
They both know their obligations and choose to fulfill them. An individual's "supreme duty is to be a member of the state" Elements of the Philosophy of Right , section The individual has "substantial freedom in the state".
The State is "objective spirit" so "it is only through being a member of the state that the individual himself has objectivity, truth, and ethical life" section Every member loves the State with genuine patriotism, but has transcended simple "team spirit" by reflectively endorsing their citizenship.
According to Hegel, " Heraclitus is the one who first declared the nature of the infinite and first grasped nature as in itself infinite, that is, its essence as process.
The origin of philosophy is to be dated from Heraclitus. His is the persistent Idea that is the same in all philosophers up to the present day, as it was the Idea of Plato and Aristotle".
According to Hegel, Heraclitus's "obscurity" comes from his being a true in Hegel's terms "speculative" philosopher who grasped the ultimate philosophical truth and therefore expressed himself in a way that goes beyond the abstract and limited nature of common sense and is difficult to grasp by those who operate within common sense.
Hegel asserted that, in Heraclitus, he had an antecedent for his logic: "[ Hegel cites a number of fragments of Heraclitus in his Lectures on the History of Philosophy.
Heraclitus did not form any abstract nouns from his ordinary use of "to be" and "to become" and seemed to oppose any identity A to any other identity B, C and so on, which is not-A.
However, Hegel interprets not-A as not existing at all, not nothing at all, which cannot be conceived, but an indeterminate or "pure" being without particularity or specificity.
For Hegel, the inner movement of reality is the process of God thinking as manifested in the evolution of the universe of nature and thought; Hegel argued that, when fully understood, reality is being thought by God as manifested in a person's comprehension of this process.
Since human thought is the image and fulfillment of God's thought, God can be understood by an analysis of thought and reality. Just as humans continually correct their concept of reality through a dialectical process , God becomes more fully manifested through the dialectical process of becoming.
For his god, Hegel does not take the logos of Heraclitus but refers to the nous of Anaxagoras , although he may well have regarded them the same as he continues to refer to god's plan, which is identical to God.
Whatever the nous thinks at any time is actual substance and is identical to limited being, but more remains in the substrate of non-being, which is identical to pure or unlimited thought.
The universe as becoming is a combination of being and non-being. The particular is never complete in itself, but in its quest to find completion continually transforms into more comprehensive, complex, self-relating particulars.
The essential nature of being-for-itself is that it is free "in itself;" it does not depend on anything else for its being.
The limitations represent fetters, which it must constantly cast off as it becomes freer and more self-determining.
Although Hegel began his philosophizing with commentary on the Christian religion and often expresses the view that he is a Christian, his ideas are not acceptable to some Christians even though he has had a major influence on 19th- and 20th-century theology.
As a graduate of a Protestant seminary, Hegel's theological concerns were reflected in many of his writings and lectures.
In his posthumously published Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion , Part 3 , Hegel is particularly interested in demonstrations of God's existence and the ontological proof.
This means that Jesus, as the Son of God, is posited by God over and against himself as other. Hegel sees relational and metaphysical unities between Jesus and God the Father.
To Hegel, Jesus is both divine and human. Hegel further attests that God as Jesus not only died, but "[ God rises again to life, and thus things are reversed".
The philosopher Walter Kaufmann argued that there was sharp criticism of traditional Christianity in Hegel's early theological writings.
Kaufmann also pointed out that Hegel's references to God or to the divine and spirit drew on classical Greek as well as Christian connotations of the terms.
Aside to his beloved Greeks, Hegel saw before him the example of Spinoza and, in his own time, the poetry of Goethe, Schiller, and Hölderlin, who also liked to speak of gods and the divine.
So he, too, sometimes spoke of God and, more often, of the divine; and because he occasionally took pleasure in insisting that he was really closer to this or that Christian tradition than some of the theologians of his time, he has sometimes been understood to have been a Christian.
Hegel identified as an orthodox Lutheran and believed his philosophy was consistent with Christianity. Hegel conceived of the immortality of the soul in the following manner in reference to Christianity:  .
Thus the immortality of the soul must not be represented as first entering the sphere of reality only at a later stage; it is the actual present quality of spirit; spirit is eternal, and for this reason is already present.
Spirit, as possessed of freedom, does not belong to the sphere of things limited; it, as being what thinks and knows in an absolute way, has the universal for its object; this is eternity, which is not simply duration, as duration can be predicated of mountains, but knowledge.
The eternity of spirit is here brought into consciousness, and is found in this reasoned knowledge, in this very separation, which has reached the infinitude of being-for-self, and which is no longer entangled in what is natural, contingent, and external.
This eternity of Spirit in itself means that Spirit is, to begin with, potential; but the next standpoint implies that Spirit ought to be what it is in its essential and complete nature, in-and-for-itself.
Spirit must reflect upon itself, and in this way disunion arises, it must not remain at the point at which it is seen not to be what it is potentially, but must become adequate to its Concept, it must become universal Spirit.
Regarded from the standpoint of division or disunion, its potential Being is for it an Other, and it itself is natural will; it is divided within itself, and this division is so far its feeling or consciousness of a contradiction, and there is thus given along with it the necessity for the abolition of the contradiction.
Spirit is immortal; it is eternal; and it is immortal and eternal in virtue of the fact that it is infinite, that it has no such spatial finitude as we associate with the body; when we speak of it being five feet in height, two feet in breadth and thickness, that it is not the Now of time, that the content of its knowledge does not consist of these countless midges, that its volition and freedom have not to do with the infinite mass of existing obstacles, nor of the aims and activities which such resisting obstacles and hindrances have to encounter.
The infinitude of spirit is its inwardness, in an abstract sense its pure inwardness, and this is its thought, and this abstract thought is a real present infinitude, while its concrete inwardness consists in the fact that this thought is Spirit.
Hegel seemed to have an ambivalent relationship with magic , myth and Paganism. He formulated an early philosophical example of a disenchantment narrative, arguing that Judaism was responsible both for realizing the existence of Geist and, by extension, for separating nature from ideas of spiritual and magical forces and challenging polytheism.
Hegel continued to develop his thoughts on religion both in terms of how it was to be given a 'wissenschaftlich', or "theoretically rigorous," account in the context of his own "system," and how a fully modern religion could be understood.
In addition to some articles published early in his career and during his Berlin period, Hegel published four major works during his lifetime:.
During the last ten years of his life, Hegel did not publish another book but thoroughly revised the Encyclopedia second edition, ; third, A number of other works on the philosophy of history , religion , aesthetics and the history of philosophy  were compiled from the lecture notes of his students and published posthumously.
Hegel's posthumous works have had remarkable influence on subsequent works on religion, aesthetics, and history because of the comprehensive accounts of the subject matters considered within the lectures, with Heidegger for example in Poetry, Language, Thought characterizing Hegel's Lectures on Aesthetics as the "most comprehensive reflection on the nature of art that the West possesses—comprehensive because it stems from metaphysics.
There are views of Hegel's thought as the summit of early 19th-century German philosophical idealism. It profoundly impacted many future philosophical schools, including those opposed to Hegel's specific dialectical idealism , such as existentialism , the historical materialism of Marx, historism and British Idealism.
Hegel's influence was immense in philosophy and other sciences. In the United States, Hegel's influence is evident in pragmatism.
The more recent movement of communitarianism has a strong Hegelian influence. Some of Hegel's writing was intended for those with advanced knowledge of philosophy, although his Encyclopedia was intended as a textbook in a university course.
Nevertheless, Hegel assumed that his readers are well-versed in Western philosophy. Especially crucial are Aristotle , Immanuel Kant and Kant's immediate successors, most prominently Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling.
Those without this background would be advised to begin with one of the many general introductions to his thought. As is always the case, difficulties are magnified for those reading him in translation.
In fact, Hegel himself argued, in his Science of Logic , that German was particularly conducive to philosophical thought. According to Walter Kaufmann, the basic idea of Hegel's works, especially the Phenomenology of Spirit , is that a philosopher should not "confine him or herself to views that have been held but penetrate these to the human reality they reflect".
In other words, it is not enough to consider propositions, or even the content of consciousness; "it is worthwhile to ask in every instance what kind of spirit would entertain such propositions, hold such views, and have such a consciousness.
Every outlook in other words, is to be studied not merely as an academic possibility but as an existential reality". Some historians have spoken of Hegel's influence as represented by two opposing camps.
The Right Hegelians , the allegedly direct disciples of Hegel at the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität , advocated a Protestant orthodoxy and the political conservatism of the post- Napoleon Restoration period.
Today this faction continues among conservative Protestants, such as the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod , which was founded by missionaries from Germany when the Hegelian Right was active.
The Left Hegelians , also known as the Young Hegelians, interpreted Hegel in a revolutionary sense, leading to an advocation of atheism in religion and liberal democracy in politics.
Recent studies have questioned this paradigm. Critiques of Hegel offered by the Left Hegelians radically diverted Hegel's thinking into new directions and eventually came to form a large part of the literature on and about Hegel.
The Left Hegelians also influenced Marxism, which has in turn inspired global movements, from the Russian Revolution , the Chinese Revolution and myriad of practices up until the present moment.
Twentieth-century interpretations of Hegel were mostly shaped by British idealism , logical positivism , Marxism and Fascism. According to Benedetto Croce , the Italian Fascist Giovanni Gentile "holds the honor of having been the most rigorous neo-Hegelian in the entire history of Western philosophy and the dishonor of having been the official philosopher of Fascism in Italy".
In accounts of Hegelianism formed prior to the Hegel renaissance, Hegel's dialectic was often characterized as a three-step process, " thesis, antithesis, synthesis "; a "thesis" e.
However, Hegel used this classification only once and he attributed the terminology to Kant. The terminology was largely developed earlier by Fichte.
It was spread by Heinrich Moritz Chalybäus in accounts of Hegelian philosophy and, since then, the terms have been used for this type of framework.
The "thesis—antithesis—synthesis" approach erroneously gives the sense that things or ideas are contradicted or opposed by things that come from outside them.
To the contrary, the fundamental notion of Hegel's dialectic is that things or ideas have internal contradictions. For Hegel, analysis or comprehension of a thing or idea reveals that underneath its apparently simple identity or unity is an underlying inner contradiction.
This contradiction leads to the dissolution of the thing or idea in the simple form in which it presented to a higher-level, more complex thing or idea that more adequately incorporates the contradiction.
The triadic form that appears in many places in Hegel e. For Hegel, reason is "speculative" — not "dialectical".
According to their argument, although Hegel referred to "the two elemental considerations: first, the idea of freedom as the absolute and final aim; secondly, the means for realising it, i.
Furthermore, in Hegel's language the "dialectical" aspect or "moment" of thought and reality, by which things or thoughts turn into their opposites or have their inner contradictions brought to the surface, what he called Aufhebung , is only preliminary to the "speculative" and not "synthesizing" aspect or "moment", which grasps the unity of these opposites or contradiction.
It is now widely agreed that explaining Hegel's philosophy in terms of thesis—antithesis—synthesis is inaccurate.
Nevertheless, this interpretation survives in a number of scholarly works. In the last half of the 20th century, Hegel's philosophy underwent a major renaissance.
This was due to a the rediscovery and re-evaluation of Hegel as a possible philosophical progenitor of Marxism by philosophically oriented Marxists; b a resurgence of Hegel's historical perspective; and c an increasing recognition of the importance of his dialectical method.
This sparked a renewed interest in Hegel reflected in the work of Herbert Marcuse , Theodor W. In Reason and Revolution , Herbert Marcuse made the case for Hegel as a revolutionary and criticized Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse 's thesis that Hegel was a totalitarian.
Beginning in the s, Anglo-American Hegel scholarship has challenged the traditional interpretation of Hegel as offering a metaphysical system: this has also been the approach of Z.
Pelczynski and Shlomo Avineri. This view, sometimes referred to as the "non-metaphysical option", has influenced many major English-language studies of Hegel.
Late 20th-century literature in Western Theology that is friendly to Hegel includes works by such writers as Walter Kaufmann , Dale M. Schlitt , Theodore Geraets , Philip M.
Merklinger , Stephen Rocker and Cyril O'Regan Two prominent American philosophers, John McDowell and Robert Brandom sometimes referred to as the " Pittsburgh Hegelians" , have produced philosophical works with a marked Hegelian influence.
In a separate Canadian context, James Doull 's philosophy is deeply Hegelian. Beginning in the s after the fall of the Soviet Union, a fresh reading of Hegel took place in the West.
For these scholars, fairly well represented by the Hegel Society of America and in cooperation with German scholars such as Otto Pöggeler and Walter Jaeschke, Hegel's works should be read without preconceptions.
Marx plays little-to-no role in these new readings. American philosophers associated with this movement include Lawrence Stepelevich , Rudolf Siebert , Richard Dien Winfield and Theodore Geraets.
Criticism of Hegel has been widespread in the 19th and the 20th centuries. Moore , Franz Rosenzweig , Eric Voegelin and A. Ayer have challenged Hegelian philosophy from a variety of perspectives.
Among the first to take a critical view of Hegel's system was the 19th-century German group known as the Young Hegelians , which included Feuerbach, Marx, Engels and their followers.
In Britain, the Hegelian British idealism school members of which included Francis Herbert Bradley , Bernard Bosanquet and in the United States Josiah Royce was challenged and rejected by analytic philosophers Moore and Russell.
In particular, Russell considered "almost all" of Hegel's doctrines to be false. Hegel's contemporary Schopenhauer was particularly critical and wrote of Hegel's philosophy as "a pseudo-philosophy paralyzing all mental powers, stifling all real thinking".
A guardian fearing that his ward might become too intelligent for his schemes might prevent this misfortune by innocently suggesting the reading of Hegel.
History does not, in Hegel, a narrow sense, but it means a comprehensive and universal. The Universal History is nothing but the manifestation of the divine process of absolute Spirit, the gradual progress by which it becomes aware of itself.
The final stages of total spiritual process correspond to those of Art, Religion and Philosophy: the movement of the Spirit acquires a transparency of greater and greater.
The idea, conceived as a higher form of the Spirit, fully actualized in the artwork and the Beautiful. Art is for us now, from the past: he has lost, says Hegel, in our civilization, its truth and life.
In Religion training where the individual stands at the thought of God and in union with him , and Philosophy Intelligence and thought of this and the real, system design and what is conceptual grasp of the world in his unit , the Spirit progressively divest himself of its matrix material.
Thus the Absolute Spirit, freed from its merits, it reached full equality with himself. Our time is particularly severe in relation to Hegel.
In the eyes of Hegel, all that has happened marks, indeed, a step toward the realization of the Spirit.Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel war ein deutscher Philosoph, der als wichtigster Vertreter des deutschen Idealismus gilt. Religionsphilosophie; Philosophie und Geschichte der Philosophie; Enzyklopädie der. August begeht die Welt den Geburtstag des deutschen Philosophen. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. der erste Biograf Hegels, Karl Rosenkranz, schreibt: Hegel ist der Philosoph der Revolution und nicht der Philosoph der Restauration“, so Klaus.